Donice z polietylenu

Co to jest polietylen PE i do czego służy?

Polietylen to termoplastyczny polimer o zmiennej wartości krystalicznej, który ma szerokie zastosowanie w zależności od rodzaju typu. Jest to jedno z najczęściej produkowanych tworzyw sztucznych na świecie, którego produkuje się rocznie całe dziesiątki milionów ton. Proces komercyjny (katalizatory Zieglera-Natty), dzięki którym PE odniósł taki sukces, został opracowany w latach pięćdziesiątych XX wieku przez dwóch naukowców, Karla Zieglera z Niemiec i Giulio Natty z Włoch.

Polietylen, podobnie jak inne tworzywa sztuczne, zaczyna się od destylacji paliw węglowodorowych (w tym przypadku etanu) na lżejsze grupy zwane „frakcjami”, z których niektóre są łączone z innymi katalizatorami w celu wytworzenia tworzyw sztucznych (zazwyczaj poprzez polimeryzację lub polikondensację).

Donice białe i czarne designerskie w biurze

Istnieje wiele rodzajów  polietylenu, a każdy z nich nadaje się do innego zestawu zastosowań. Ogólnie rzecz biorąc, polietylen o dużej gęstości (HDPE) jest znacznie bardziej krystaliczny i jest często używany w zupełnie innych okolicznościach niż polietylen o niskiej gęstości (LDPE). Na przykład LDPE jest szeroko stosowane w opakowaniach plastikowych, takie jak torby na zakupy lub folia. Z kolei HDPE ma powszechne zastosowania w budownictwie (na przykład w produkcji rur spustowych). Polietylen o ultrawysokiej masie cząsteczkowej (UHMW) ma bardzo wysokie zastosowania w takich rozwiązaniach, jak urządzenia medyczne i kamizelki kuloodporne.

Jakie cechy ma polietylen?

Teraz, gdy wiemy, do czego służy, przyjrzyjmy się niektórym z kluczowych właściwości polietylenu. PE jest klasyfikowany jako „termoplastyczny” (w przeciwieństwie do „termoutwardzalnego”) na podstawie sposobu, w jaki tworzywo sztuczne reaguje na ciepło. Materiały termoplastyczne przechodzą w stan ciekły w temperaturze topnienia (110-130 stopni Celsjusza odpowiednio w przypadku LDPE i HDPE). Przydatną cechą tworzyw termoplastycznych jest to, że można je podgrzać do temperatury topnienia, schłodzić i ponownie ogrzać bez znaczącej degradacji. Tworzywa termoplastyczne, takie jak polietylen, zamiast się palić, ulegają skropleniu, co pozwala na łatwe formowanie wtryskowe, a następnie poddanie recyklingowi.

Donice nowoczesne z polietylenu PE na tarasie

Natomiast termoutwardzalne tworzywa sztuczne można podgrzać tylko raz (zwykle podczas procesu formowania wtryskowego). Pierwsze nagrzewanie powoduje związanie materiałów termoutwardzalnych (podobnie jak w przypadku dwuskładnikowej żywicy epoksydowej), co powoduje zmianę chemiczną, której nie można cofnąć. Gdybyś próbował podgrzać termoutwardzalny plastik po raz drugi do wysokiej temperatury, spłonąłby. Ta cecha sprawia, że ​​materiały termoutwardzalne są słabymi kandydatami do recyklingu.

Dlaczego polietylen jest tak często używany w produkcji donic?

Polietylen jest niezwykle przydatnym tworzywem towarowym, szczególnie w śród firm zajmujących się projektowaniem i produkcją donic . Ze względu na różnorodność wariantów PE znajduje szerokie zastosowanie w tej gałęzi przemysłu. Może być obrabiany CNC lub formowany próżniowo. Polietylen jest generalnie droższy niż polipropylen, który może być używany w podobnych zastosowaniach.

Donice prostokątne z polietylenu PE w ogródku kawiarnianym

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